Research and Clinical Instruments Manufacturer & Supplier
Acquisition InterfacesNational Instruments USB-6341-BNCHEKA LIH 8+8 Data Acquisition SystemAmplifiersNeuroLog SystemD360 8-Ch. EP/EEG/EMGD360R 4 Channel Isolated Research Amplifier/FilterD440 2/4 Ch. EMG/EPHEKA EPC10 Patch ClampHEKA EPC10 2/3/4 Ch. Patch ClampHEKA EPC800 Patch ClampAnti-vibration SystemsThorLabs Science DesksNarishige ITS Anti-vibrationNarishige Double MagnetNarishige SBP-2 BaseplateCell InjectorsPLI-100A Pico-injectorPLI-10 Pico-injectorNarishige IM-11-2Narishige IMS-20Narishige IM-21Narishige IM-400Injection Accessories
Incubators & ChambersAutomate Perfusion ChambersMedical Systems MicroincubatorsSSD Brain Slice KeepersSSD Brain Slice ChambersIontophoretic DevicesD380 Dye MarkerMains Noise EliminatorsHumBug Noise EliminatorD400 2/4Ch. Mains Noise EliminatorManipulatorsElectrophysiology System ManipulatorsInjection System ManipulatorsStereotaxic Manipulators“YOU” Compact ManipulatorsChronic ManipulatorsAccessoriesMicroscope Adaptors (Ephys)Microscope Adaptors (Injection)
MEA SystemsMED64 – BasicMED64 – Quad IIMED64 – AllegroMED64 – Plex 4/8MED64 – PrestoMED64 – Mobius SoftwareMED64 ProbesPerfusion EquipmentPerfusion SystemsPerfusion AccessoriesPipette FabricationMicropipette PullersMicroforges & MicrogrindersReplacement PartsCapillary GlassProgrammers & TimersDG2A Train Delay GeneratorNeuroLog System
Signal GeneratorsTG315 Function GeneratorSoftwareQtracW Threshold TrackingAutoMate EasycodeHEKA Chartmaster SoftwareHEKA Patchmaster SoftwareHEKA Fitmaster SoftwareStimulatorsDS2A Constant VoltageDS3 Constant CurrentDS4 Biphasic Constant CurrentDS5 Bipolar Constant CurrentDS7A/DS7AH Constant CurrentDS7R Constant Current ResearchDS8R Biphasic ResearchD121-11 Mounting FrameD185 Transcranial MultiPulseD330 MultiStim SystemNL800A Current Stimulus Isolator
A/D Interface ModulesNL201 – Spike TriggerNL601 – Pulse IntegratorAmplifier ModulesNL100AK – HeadstageNL100RK (NL100AKS & NL100C)NL102G – DC PreamplifierNL104A – AC PreamplifierNL106 – AC/DC AmplifierNL108A – Pressure AmplifierNL109 – Bridge AmplifierNL120S – Audio AmplifierNL820A – 4-Ch. IsolatorNL844 – 4-Ch. AC PreamplifierAnalogue ModulesNL254 – RatemeterNL506 – Analogue SwitchNL703 – EMG Integrator
Digital ModulesNL405 – Width/DelayNL501 – Logic GateNL505 – Flip FlopNL603 – CounterNL730 – Pulse ShiftFilter & Conditioner ModulesNL125/6 – Band-Pass FilterNL134/5/6 – 4-Ch. Low Pass FiltersNL143 – 3-Ch. Difference AmplifierNL144 – 4-Ch. High Pass FilterNL530 – Signal ConditionerNL540 – Inverting Attenuator (Alt. Gain)Generator ModulesNL301 – Pulse GeneratorNL304 – Period GeneratorNL412 – Pulse
NeuroLog AccessoriesAccessory KitsAdaptors & Adaptor CablesSockets (for cable mounting)Sockets (for panel mounting)Plugs (for cable mounting)Extension CablesCablesElectrode HoldersMiscellaneous AccessoriesNeuroLog System CasesNL900D – NeuroLog System CaseNL905 – Compact NeuroLog System Case
Pressure Transducers & AccelerometersPressure TransducersForce TransducersAccelerometersStimulator ModulesNL510 – Pulse BufferNL512 – Biphasic BufferNL800A Constant Current Stimulus Isolator
Application NotesSignal AmplificationTriggering & Pulse GenerationSignal Conditioning Filtering & ProcessingElectrical Stimulation
Isolated Amplifiers for EMG/EEG/EP D440 2/4-Ch. EMG AmplifierD360 8-Ch. Patient Amplifier D360R 4-Ch. Research AmplifierAmplifier Accessories D175 Electrode Impedance Meter D179 Performance Checker D360 Audio Interface D360 USB to Serial Adaptor D177 Bio-Feedback Unit
Peripheral Stimulators DS5 Isolated Bipolar Constant Current Stimulator DS7A & DS7AH HV Constant Current Stimulator DS7R HV Constant Current Research Stimulator DS8R Biphasic Constant Current Stimulator
Transcranial Cortical StimulatorsD185 MultiPulse Cortical Electrical StimulatorStimulator AccessoriesD188 Remote Electrode SelectorElectrode Connection HeadboxesTrigger CablesElectrode HandlesMiscellaneous Items
Neurodiagnostic AccessoriesIntraoperative Neuromonitoring (IONM) Electroecephalography (EEG) Electromyography (EMG)Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) Evoked Potential (EP)Axelgaard Stimulation ElectrodesTouch Proof Plugs Adaptors & Electrode Linkers
Cath SecureCATH-SECURE – OriginalCATH-SECURE – ExtendedCATH-SECURE PlusCATH-SECURE – Dual TabCATH-SECURE For KidsNG SECURE
PessariesPessary Ring Sizing KitsCerclage Pessary (Perforated)Cerclage Pessary (Non Perforated)Ring PessaryThick Ring PessaryCube Pessary (Perforated)Cube Pessary (Non-Perforated)Vaginal DilatorUrethra PessaryBowl PessaryUrethra Bowl PessarySieve Bowl PessaryHodge PessaryClub PessaryTandem Pessary (Perforated)Tandem Pessary (Non-Perforated)
Urodynamic ConsumablesUrodynamics CathetersPump Infusion SetsTransducer Pressure DomesFemale Voiding AdaptorDuckbill ValvesSetguards3-Way Taps
The TVEC Equine Atrial Fibrillation Catheters are introduced via the external jugular route, they are positioned with one in the Right Atrium and the other in the Pulmonary Artery. The catheters have appropriate torque characteristics and a natural curvature which, together with flow assistance, ultrasound or fluoroscopy, allows accurate placement.
The equine atrial fibrillation catheters are packaged Non-Sterile and should be sterilised prior to use.
The TVEC catheters have been developed with the considerable help and guidance of Dr Peter Physick-Sheard BVSc, MSc, FRCVS associate professor in the Department of Population Medicine at the Ontario Veterinary College at the University of Guelph. Digitimer Ltd is very grateful for his past and ongoing support.
The equine atrial fibrillation catheters are supplied in pairs and it is recommended that they are restricted to single use.
A matching extension cable is available separately.
Atrial fibrillation is the most common clinically significant rhythm disturbance in the horse, and is estimated to affect up to 2.5% of horses. Although a physical examination can reliably suggest the presence of the problem, and an ECG will confirm the diagnosis, clinical signs are not obvious. If a horse is never asked to perform maximally or to maintain a sustained high level of working, the presence of the rhythm disturbance may go unnoticed. Unlike the situation for humans with AF, consequences in the horse are limited to a tendency to tire at work for the average horse, and obviously poor performance for maximal performers such as the racehorse. Affected horses can have a long and happy life, but they are clearly no longer athletes. Humans often show the rhythm disturbance in association with some form of organic heart disease. In the horse, there is most often no underlying disease, which means that if the disturbance can be corrected the prognosis is often excellent.
Treatment has traditionally employed the use of quinidine sulphate administered by stomach tube, and occasionally intravenously. This resolves the problem for a significant percentage of horses, possibly up to 75%, but the drug has a very narrow therapeutic margin and is associated with a range of dose-related and idiosyncratic toxic effects. This means that some horses may not be able to tolerate the drug, and may show significant signs of toxicity before the drug has had a chance to achieve a therapeutic effect. This is particularly the case in horses that have had the arrhythmia for a prolonged period (more than two weeks). Horses that are sensitive to the drug may show intolerance with as little as a single dose. Even horses that tolerate the drug relatively well may require fluid therapy and intensive care for a day or two to help them get over the toxic effects. Finally, horses often require 2-3 weeks to get over drug treatment before they can return to serious training.
Transvenous Electrical Cardioversion (TVEC) involves converting the horse to normal (sinus) rhythm through the use of intravenous catheter-mounted electrodes and a standard cardiac defibrillator. Two catheters are placed through the jugular vein, one into the left pulmonary artery by flowing the catheter through the heart, the other in the right atrium. Electrical shocks are then delivered under general anaesthesia to return heart rhythm to normal. The procedure requires careful placement of two custom-designed, special-purpose catheters [Gaeltec Devices Ltd TVEC Electrode Catheters, Order code: TVEC] in the standing horse under ultrasound and pressure guidance, followed by radiographic confirmation of electrode placement. The approach has now become the treatment of choice for horses that cannot tolerate drug therapy, have been in AF for a prolonged period, have previously failed to respond to medication, or for which minimal interruption of training is required. Treated horses that respond are often back in full training in 4-5 days after recovery from general anaesthesia. Treatment response to date has been almost 100%.
It is important to understand that while TVEC provides a therapeutic option for horses that cannot otherwise be treated, often returning them to their previous level of athletic activity, the use of this modality does not influence prognosis when compared to successful cardioversion by any other technique. Clinicians should expect that approximately 20% of horses will relapse at some point, anywhere from hours to months after treatment, and will need to be treated again if they are to maintain their athletic/work performance. Note also, that the foregoing describes the situation for horses with lone AF, that is, arrhythmia in the absence of organic heart disease. While horses that are affected with AF as a consequence of heart disease, such as valvular regurgitation, can often be treated successfully, prognosis may be significantly different. Such animals need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis, since cardioversion attempts may not be the most appropriate approach to take to clinical management.
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